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To obtain three pounds of sinsemilla bud from square feet of canopy requires a yield of 0. While the DEA data show an oven-dried average of 0. More harvests, smaller plants:Indoor gardens often grow many small plants rather than a few big ones. It took 80 plants this size to yield eight ounces of finished sinsemilla bud. Using light deprivation techniques, two harvests can be produced per year. The following reference chart shows how many rounded plants of a similar size can fit within square feet of total garden canopy.
Number of plants Individual plant size 1 plant at diameter each 64 to 95 sq. Some people can grow bushy plants outdoors while others need to grow Sea of Green gardens indoors with small plants. Most gardens naturally produce an assortment of plant sizes. A typical mature outdoor garden might hold two plants at 4 diameter, six at 3, four at 2 and 12 at 1 diameter to total 24 plants in 92 sq.
Canopy indicates a gardens likely yield without counting plants, knowing if they are seedlings or clones, etc. Safe Access Now Garden Guidelines are easy to use and follow for either circumstance. All you need is a tape measure to calculate the canopy size. Consider the overall plant and garden configuration, layout and density, then do the math.
Use the weight formula for adjustments to above-average density plants.
Maximum Yield With Autoflowering Marijuana
How many are too many? It depends. Since a few large cannabis plants can out-produce hundreds of small ones, the number of plants in a garden cannot accurately predict yield. Males and nurseries dont produce bud. A typical indoor garden might include 12 flowering plants in a 32 sq. The default guidelines in Californias SB only protect from arrest up to eight ounces of bud and six mature or. Outdoor Example A single plant with rounded canopy 30 in diameter covers almost 5 square feet of area.
Aerial view, looking down at a plant First, measure plant diameter e. Any supply of cannabis or garden canopy that is larger than local or statewide default guidelines should be accompanied by a physicians written authorization if possible, to tell law enforcement that the quantity is legitimate for the patient or patients current needs. Remember, whether indoors or out, only the mature female flowering area provides usable bud.
Looks can be deceiving. After the plants are ripe, they still must be cut, dried, manicured, cured and processed to the point where only a small percentage of the original weight remains before they are ready to use. A plant cap fits below the federal five-year mandatory sentence. Indoors: A personal indoor garden typically fits into one or two average size rooms using electric lamps, fans and basic garden supplies. While the indoor garden can be harvested three or four times a year, its annual yield is often about the same as outdoors.
The SAN guidelines offer a reasonable standard for presumptive compliance: Any garden that covers up to square feet of canopy, uses up to four watt HID lamps eg. About half of the area is used for flowering females and harvested three times per year, for a total of The other half is for mothers, seedlings, clones and young. Understanding grow lamps: Only part of an indoor plants that are used to refill the flowering area as needed. The rest is nursery and vegetative areas that Vegetative plants in a do not produce bud.
TAKE AUTO YIELDS TO THE LIMIT
To keep the flower96 square feet ing and vegetative light cycles separated, the crop frequently ends up in two rooms. Electrical overloads and lamp heat can cause fires. Most homes cannot support more than extra watts. Also beware of flooding, mold and odors. For every one or two high intensity discharge HID lamps used for flowering, about a pound of bud is harvested per cycle. A reasonably good grower can expect a pound of bud per watts of illumination in the flowering area.
Amounts above that yield are exceptional. Possession of marijuana for personal use is a federal misdemeanor 21 USC a[a]. There is no medical exception. Things may soon change. On Feb. Penalties for possessing a federal controlled substance may include up to a year in prison and a fine. Subsequent violations: 90 days to three years plus a fine. Action or conspiracy to cultivate up to 50 plants or distribute up to 50 kilograms of cannabis, 10 kilos of hash, or one kilo of oil draw fines and a sentence up to five years. Real estate, money, vehicles, securities or other things of value that can be connected to violations of federal drug law are subject to confiscation by the US government 21USC , , a, The Ninth Circuit in affirmed a physicians First Amendment right to speak to a patient and recommend or approve cannabis without fear of arrest, as long as they do not prescribe it or help patients obtain it.
Conant v. Walters was appealed, but the US Supreme Court denied cert, confirming its validity. The order enjoins the federal government from either revoking a physicians license to prescribe controlled substances or conducting an investigation of a physician that might lead to such revocation, where the basis for the governments action is solely the physicians professional recommendation of the use of medical marijuana.
The government has not provided any empirical evidence to demonstrate that this injunction interferes with or threatens to interfere with any legitimate law enforcement activities. Nor is there any evidence that the similarly phrased preliminary injunction that preceded this injunction, Conant v. McCaffrey, which the government did not appeal,.
The substance has a high potential for abuse. There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. The district court, on the other hand, explained convincingly when it entered both the earlier preliminary injunction and this permanent injunction, how the governments professed enforcement policy threatens to interfere with expression protected by the First Amendment.
Walters 9th Cir F. The Supreme Court held in US v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers Coop. It did not rule out individual necessity. OCBC, U. The Ninth Circuits Raich v. Ashcroft appellate ruling held that the Interstate Commerce clause cannot ban non-commercial cannabis in a state where it is legal, but a divided US Supreme Court reversed Raich in , in a blow to patients and States rights. It did not address issues of substantive due process or medical necessity. It urged Congress to reform federal laws. The question before us, however, is not whether it is wise to enforce the statute in these circumstances; rather, it is whether Congress power to regulate interstate markets for medicinal substances encompasses The authority to grant permission whenever the doctor determines that a patient is afflicted with any other illness for which marijuana provides relief, Cal.
Perhaps even more important than these legal avenues is the democratic process, in which the voices of voters allied with these respondents may one day be heard in the halls of Congress. Under the present state of the law, however, the judgment of the Court of Appeals must be vacated. Gonzales v. Raich, U. It is reasonable for anyone to doubt government facts about cannabis and its use.
American jurors who reject any facts put forth by a prosecutor, and vote to acquit, are not subject to any punishment for doing so. Page 12 Cannabis Yields and Dosage. The US Supreme Court denied cert on May 18, to San Diego v California, a lawsuit in which the County of San Diego lost its bid to overturn state medical marijuana laws, and thereby affirmed their validity. The US High Court left intact a July 31, California Appellate ruling that the state is free to decide whether to punish cannabis users under its own laws.
The California Supreme Court previously declined to review the same appellate decision on October 16, The County has now lost at all levels of the State and federal court systems with its claim that federal law invalidates state medical marijuana laws. On appeal, Counties assert the trial court applied an overly narrow test for preemption, and the MMP is preempted as an obstacle to the CSA. We conclude We also reject San Bernardino's claim that the identification card provisions of the MMP are invalid under the California Constitution.
Although we conclude title 21 UCS signifies Congress's intent to maintain the power of states to elect "to 'serve as a laboratory' in the trial of 'novel social and economic experiments without risk to the rest of the country' " US v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative U. The purpose of the federal law is to combat recreational drug use, not to regulate a state's medical practices. To a large extent, federal policy is within the discretion of the President, through the Dept.
Through its tone and appointments, the Barack Obama administration has since taken several steps toward a new long-term approach, including Attorney General Holder issuing a memorandum in late for USattorneys to forgo filing charges that trigger mandatory prison sentences. Cannabis Yields and Dosage Page Memo on Preemption May 20, In recent years, however, notwithstanding Executive Order of August 4, Federalism , executive departments and agencies have sometimes announced that their regulations preempt State law, including State common law, without explicit preemption by the Congress or an otherwise sufficient basis under applicable legal principles.
Executive departments and agencies should be mindful that in our Federal system, the citizens of the several States have distinctive circumstances and values, and that in many instances it is appropriate for them to apply to themselves rules and principles that reflect these circumstances and values. Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels; Preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;.
Preventing state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity; Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana; Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with [its] use; Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and.
These priorities will continue to guide the Department's enforcement of the CSA against marijuana-related conduct. In jurisdictions that have enacted laws legalizing marijuana in some form and that have also implemented strong and effective regulatory and enforcement systems to control the cultivation, distribution, sale, and possession of marijuana, conduct in compliance with those laws and regulations is less likely to threaten the federal priorities set forth above.
Indeed, a robust system may affirmatively address those priorities by, for example, implementing effective measures to prevent diversion of marijuana outside of the regulated system and to other states, prohibiting access to marijuana by minors, and replacing an illicit marijuana trade that funds criminal enterprises with a tightly regulated market in which revenues are tracked and accounted for. In those circumstances, consistent with the traditional allocation of federal-state efforts in this area, enforcement of state law by state and local law enforcement and regulatory bodies should remain the primary means of addressing marijuana-related activity.
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If state enforcement efforts are not sufficiently robust to protect against the harms set forth above, the federal government may seek to challenge the regulatory structure itself in addition to continuing to bring individual enforcement actions, including criminal prosecutions, focused on those harms. The cultivation statute includes processing cannabis. People v Bergen held that qualified patients can legally make edibles, hash and kief but using solvents like butane to make oil is an illegal chemical extraction process; and yet, the medical oil itself is legal.
In the California Constitution, when a state law conflicts with federal statute, state officials must enforce and follow state law and leave federal law to federal agencies. An administrative agency, including an administrative agency created by the Constitution or an initiative statute, has no power Both the California and US Supreme Courts declined to block lower Court rulings that state police must return lawful medical marijuana, despite federal law. We are persuaded due process will allow nothing less. Appeals Court, People v. Kha Cal. The law does not specify how much can be legally grown or possessed, nor did it authorize the legislature to set such a limit.
California Health and Safety Code. A qualified individual charged with a small quantity of cannabis can file a demurrer against the charges. They can assert their immunity at a court preliminary or evidentiary hearing to get charges dismissed or go to trial. The amount of cannabis cultivated, possessed or transported must be reasonably related to patient needs.
The rule should be that the quantity possessed by the patient or the primary caregiver, and the form and manner in which it is possessed, should be reasonably related to the patients current. Pursuant to People v Mower, once a valid approval is shown, the burden shifts for the prosecutor to show that any given amount of cannabis is beyond the scope of Prop As a result of the enactment of section CA Supreme Court, People v. Mower 28 Cal. The Court in People v. Spark held that a qualified patient need not prove that he or she is seriously ill, and that the physicians medical opinion is not on trial.
From the foregoing observations, A physicians determination on this medical issue is not to be second-guessed by jurors who might not deem the patients condition to be sufficiently serious. Spark Cal. A physicians approval may be shown by duces tecum. The Bearman v. Joseph Cal. People v. Jones Cal. Tilehkooh Cal. Chakos Cal. App 4th requires that a police expert witness must be trained on medical use in order to opine about intent to sell. Proposition was a California state voter initiative creating its primary medical marijuana law, HS The Legislature.
May amend or repeal an initiative statute by another statute that becomes effective only when approved by the electors unless the initiative statute permits amendment or repeal without their approval. California Constitution, Art. Senate Bill created a separate set of laws that are subject to modification and some of its key provisions are currently at risk of being restricted or overturned. It created a voluntary, confidential patient identity card system to be administered by the Department of Health Services.
Its purpose was to protect against arrest and provide for patient collectives. At the last minute, low, arbitrary guideline amounts were inserted as a safe harbor from arrest. The authors explained their intention: Fully appreciating that Proposition cannot be amended by the Legislature, we have resisted all efforts to make the new identification card system created by SB mandatory at least two times our SB contains specific language declaring our intent that the program is wholly voluntary. We tried to incorporate NIDA guidelines, but learned that they do not really exist in any form we could incorporate; We chose guidelines we believe best meet our search for balance between patients needs and practical results in getting SB signed into law; emphasis added.
How to Dose Homemade Edibles
In addition we allow localities with higher possession or cultivation amounts to retain them, and other localities to establish new guidelines which exceed what is set forth in this bill. No jurisdiction may establish guidelines lower than those set forth in SB ; In addition we provided individuals the option to get in excess of the guidelines upon a doctors recommendation for amounts exceeding the cultivation and possession guidelines set in this bill. Our letter in the Assembly and Senate Journals expresses legislative intent that these guidelines are intended to be the threshold, and not a ceiling.
The intention regarding changes in marijuana law was also laid out in the legislative introduction to SB SB 1. SB modified the Health and Safety Code to allow distribution through patient collectives. It states that only dried, processed mature female cannabis flowers. It also created two legal categories, qualified patients via Prop and persons with an identification card via SB It gives card holders limited immunity from arrest It sets criminal penalties for abuse of the card system It allows cardholder-caregivers more than one patient in their home county or only one out of county patient.
Prop did not protect people from arrest, nor did it specify any limits. Under SB , however, a person with a valid, voluntary state-issued ID card is immune from arrest for amounts of cannabis consistent with the floor amounts, the local guideline, or the physicians note. HS Mark Leno mary caregiver in possession of a valid identification card shall be subject to arrest for possession, transportation, delivery, or cultivation of medical marijuana in an amount established pursuant to this article, unless there is reasonable cause to believe that the information contained in the card is false or falsified, the card has been obtained by means of fraud, or the person is otherwise in violation of the provisions of this article.
To ensure that patients, caregivers and collectives are protected statewide, each county is required to set up and implement the voluntary ID card system. Police are required to respect the state ID card and to not arrest patients who comply. A state or local law enforcement agency or officer shall not refuse to accept an identification card issued by the department unless the state or local law enforcement agency or officer has reasonable cause to believe that the information contained in the card is false or fraudulent, or the card is being used fraudulently.
SB set a default guideline of six mature or 12 immature plants and eight ounces of bud or conversion as a safe harbor from arrest.
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In addition, a qualified patient or primary caregiver may also maintain no more than six mature or 12 immature marijuana plants per qualified patient. The protected amounts are neither scientific nor reasonable. The more cannabis a patient needs, the more vulnerable they are to arrest and prosecution. Also, the language no more than appears to impose a limit. The statute provides two remedies to this problem: HS A physician may note that the guideline amounts are not adequate, although the state medical boards legal counsel discourages their specifying an amount.
Localities are empowered to adopt guidelines, as long as the amounts are not lower than the state floor. Reasonable guidelines are cost-effective, fair and compassionate. They save law enforcement resources, court time and legal expense. Adopting Safe Access Now garden guidelines can stop needless arrests and save counties a lot of money. The legislature cannot override Prop Two state appeals courts held the SB quantity limits were unconstitutional. People v Kelly was taken up by the State Supreme Court, which held that the quantity limits are unconstitutional when they burden the defense, but the rest of SB remains intact.
The amount established pursuant to this article is addressed in section That section does two things: 1 it establishes quantity limitations, and 2 it sets forth a safe harbor by authorizing possession of specific amounts of medical marijuana within those specific limits. To the extent Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to sever The High Court also affirmed by inclusion both the constitutionality of medical marijuana laws and the right for qualified patients to form cannabis collectives. Because the San Diego, Ibid ; accord, Hochanadal [holding that Kelly Ibid.
The Wayman case Cal. Soon after Prop passed, San Francisco dispensary operator Dennis Peron lost his Appeals Court argument that he could sell cannabis legally under its provisions, but the court did agree that some compensation is reasonable for providing caregivers. People v Peron 59 Cal.
SB eventually established a limited statewide immunity for caregivers and patients for transportation, sales, intent to distribute and maintaining a place where medical marijuana is used or produced. However, nothing in this section shall authorize the individual to smoke or otherwise consume marijuana unless otherwise authorized by this article, nor shall anything in this section authorize any individual or group to cultivate or distribute marijuana for profit. Qualified patients, persons with valid identification cards, and the designated primary caregivers of qualified patients and persons with identification cards, who associate within the State of California in order collectively or cooperatively to cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, shall not solely on the basis of that fact be subject to state criminal sanctions under , , , , , In general, this constitutes a group of qualified Page 16 Cannabis Yields and Dosage.
In some groups everything is voluntary, others require participation in the garden, and others pay support staff. Some provide with no cash exchanged, while others operate licensed retail storefronts. Some provide delivery services. Patients pool their approvals to get bulk discounts or make sure to have a designated member for everything on hand at a given time; eg.
Most keep documents at garden and supply sites. Unfortunately, the records that may help defend a collective under state law can trigger federal conspiracy charges. Some groups seek the approval of a government agency, but most prefer to provide member information only to present a legal defense. Most require written approvals, rather than oral, and prefer the state ID card or a verified card issued by the non-government Patient ID Center. Most require that the physicians authorization be verified.
Based on the Trippet decision, every qualified patient could now defend any reasonable quantity under state law but they still might lose in court. People with valid identification cards are protected at least up to the minimal extent in HS In theory that means no arrest and no destruction of lawful medicine, but law enforcement does not always comply. The collective should not purchase marijuana from, or sell to, non-members; instead, it should only provide a means for facilitating or coordinating transactions between members. The sales issue was tested in court, and the People v Urziceanu decision confirmed that collectives can sell cannabis to qualified patients with legal immunity.
This new law represents a dramatic change in the prohibitions on the use, distribution, and cultivation of marijuana for persons who are qualified patients or primary caregivers and fits the defense defendant attempted to present at trial. Its specific itemization of the marijuana sales law indicates it contemplates the formation and operation of medicinal marijuana cooperatives that would receive reimbursement for marijuana and the services provided in conjunction with the provision of that marijuana.
Urziceanu Cal. The People v. Mentch 45 Cal. The landmark People v. Hochanadal held that:. People v Hochanadal Cal. A series of rulings clarified the status of patients. Windus Cal. The Colvin Cal. Mitchell held that a dispensary employee must also be a member of the collective. The Jackson Cal. Both the Anderson Cal. The Appeals Court struck down a series of restrictions posed by county officials, and allowed a collective operator to sue police and public officials for damages when his lawful cannabis garden was destroyed.
Statewide, dispensaries pay millions of dollars in taxes and fees. The Board of Equalization ruled that since medical marijuana is not prescribed, it is an over-thecounter drug subject to sales tax. Some cities have zoning and permitting policies that ban dispensaries while others collect licensing fees. Cities have created special business tax rates for cannabis. The Cal Supreme Court in Riverside v. Live Oak appellate decision, which upheld the right of local governments to completely ban personal use cultivation by medical marijuana patients. Those rulings affect civil law but do not limit a patients defense against state criminal charges; however, they have unleashed a barrage of ordinances attacking the ability of patients to grow cannabis.
The state legislature can vote to change any SB provision and those changes may be for better This booklet is not a substitute for legal counsel. The issues discussed in it are either factual or subject to legal interpretation and changes in law. Before undertaking the cultivation or provision of medicinal cannabis, it is always a good idea to spend the time and money to talk with a knowledgeable attorney. Even if what a person is doing is legal under state law, there is risk. A patient can still be prosecuted in state court. Primary caregivers are especially at risk because supplying medicine may be charged as distribution.
Anyone should be aware how serious the offense could be, how likely they are to be held criminal, and whether they can handle its consequences. In any drug case, the presence of a gun can often be used to add charges and increase sentences. If a case goes federal, a five-year mandatory sentence begins at plants, and years at plants, so it is important to balance legal rights against the ability to endure prosecution. In the end, you make the choice and take the risks. Here is a general idea of processes that might occur at some point to those involved with medical marijuana.
It may never happen, but here is a glimpse of the entanglements that may await. Not everything here applies to every circumstance. Talk to a knowledgeable attorney. If you dont already have an attorney, ask some questions. What do they offer? Do they know about the sections of law in this booklet? What is it going to cost? You need to balance money against freedom.
Remember you can also educate your lawyer, but you have much more on the line than they do so choose well and be ready to do some of your own leg work. If you cant afford an attorney, after arraignment you are entitled to a public defender. Contact with law enforcement is often triggered by some minor incident, such as an officer thinking they smell cannabis during a routine traffic pullover or cannabis left out in plain sight.
This is the time to exercise your right to remain silent until you have an attorney on hand other than to refuse to consent to a search. If the officer locates medicine, the defense should be asserted immediately, such as to say that medicine is legal under Health and Safety Code This is not the time to make spontaneous statements or argue your case.
What you say might be different than what the officers hear or write down. The police are not there to help you; they are there to build a case against you and send you to prison, if possible. Ask if you are under arrest or if you can leave. If you can leave, do so. If you are under arrest, ask to see an attorney at once, then remain silent.
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Booking is when the police transport and process a suspect after an arrest and put them in a holding cell. Remain silent. Consider hiring an investigator or an expert witness. If your case involves more than a very small amount of cannabis, their participation can make a big difference. An expert can consult with your attorney, analyze evidence, prepare reports and testify on your behalf at a hearing or a trial.
If you cant afford to pay for one, ask your attorney to file an Evidence Code section ex parte motion for the court to pay the cost. Navigating the legal process Plea negotiations occur when your attorney and the DA argue between getting your charges dismissed or altered and them throwing the book at you. If you can have them talking before charges are filed, so much the better. Its never too soon to bring in legal counsel to resolve the issues. Reading of charges and bail hearing. An opportunity to make a record that it was legal medical marijuana, ask for dismissal of charges, return of property and release on your own recognizance, known as O.
Arraignment is the defendants first hearing, when a judge asks you to enter a plea:Not guilty, guilty or nolo contendere guilty.
Long history, many therap
Tell the judge you need to review the police reports and will be filing a demurrer. An alternative under PC to entering a plea, you assert to the judge that the record reflects that, being a qualified patient, no laws were broken and no crime occurred. During the discovery process, you learn the prosecutors evidence against you and glean what areas need to be addressed.
You may wish to consult with an expert witness or investigator. Plea bargaining, phase two: Ask the DA to reconsider and dismiss, think about what they want you to plead guilty to and all the consequences of your plea. Can you comply with the requirements, or is it creating future problems for you? Mower Hearing, a PC hearing or common law speaking motion to dismiss, is a proceeding before a judge prior to trial in which a person gets to wage a medical defense with the burden of proof beyond reasonable doubt placed upon the prosecution.
Williamson Hearing is a PC section pre-trial process for growers who are not medical users or whose approvals are invalid, allowing them to refute charges of commercial intent and get diversion based on a preponderance of the evidence. Preliminary Hearing is where the prosecution presents to a judge witnesses and other evidence of guilt, and the defendant is able to present a defense and attempt to win a dismissal. This is an opportunity to hear the governments case and have the option of whether or not to respond.
The court only requires probable cause basically anything that raises a strong suspicion so the judge usually holds the accused for trial. If the judge dismisses the charges, a prosecutor may be able to refile them, anyway. Even if you dont expect to win, this is where you must create the record for a rehearing at a PC Hearing. Evidentiary Hearing An EC hearing asks a judge to decide what evidence is admissible. Sometimes the decisions help the defense, sometimes they hurt, but they do shape the case and may form the basis for an appeal in event of conviction.
At a PC hearing, a new judge is asked to review the preliminary record using a trial courts standards to drop the charges. Jury Trial A jury of 12 plus alternates hears evidence, testimony and arguments, then renders a verdict of either guilty or notproved-guilty-beyond-reasonable-doubt. At trial the burden of proof favors the defendant and the defense goal is full acquittal. There may be a hung jury, meaning that it cannot come to a unanimous decision and the charges may or may not be retried.
If there is a conviction, there may be basis for an appeal. Return of Property Hearing after dismissal or acquittal seeks to clarify that your legal property is not contraband and have the court order the return of medicine, equipment, etc. Sentencing is after a conviction when evidence is considered and points argued to determine your sentence. Mitigating circumstances are considered in both state and federal courts. Appeals Process seeks a judicial review of the lower court decision.
Only published decisions can be cited as case law. Armentano, Paul. Emerging Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids. British Medical Association. Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Some physical characteristics of NIDA marijuana cigarettes. Journal of Addictive Behaviors. Hemp for Health. Hemp:Lifeline to the Future. The stability of cannabis and its preparations on storage U of London. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceuticals. V 28, , pp Grinspoon, Bakalar. Marihuana as Medicine Commentary. June , pp. THCcontent and differences in marijuana smoking behavior.
Psychopharmacology , Iversen, Leslie. The Science of Marijuana. Oxford University Press UK , National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Notes. Marijuana Research Findings: Plasma -9 THC concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Marijuana Use and Mortality. American Journal of Public Health. Vol , pp Starks, M. Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing and Potency. Ronin Publishing. Cannabis Yields, Conrad has qualified as a cannabis expert more than times in US federal and state courts and his testimony is discussed in numerous California Appellate and Supreme Court rulings. His recognized expertise includes issues of industrial hemp, personal cannabis use, religious use, medical use, dosage, consumption, cultivation, yields, preparations, pricing, sales and intent.
He first presented this research at the Fifth Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics and is an instructor at Oaksterdam University. His curriculum vitae resume is available online as a PDF file at chrisconrad. To schedule an interview, presentation or consultation, please telephone or email case chrisconrad. It is a handy and authoritative reference book on the effects, titration and cultivation of cannabis that untangles current laws and policies. Safe Access Now medical marijuana dosage and garden guidelines are responsible and based on federal research.
They meet the needs of a majority of patients. Philip Denney, M. Following the Safe Access Now Guidelines could save a lot of time and money for law enforcement and communities. Diane Goldstein, April Lieutenant Ret. Based on various government and non-governmental sources, a patient will use up to three pounds of processed usable marijuana per year. Therefore these guidelines are intended to allow for the cultivation and use of up to three pounds of marijuana per year. Each patient will be allowed to possess three pounds of processed marijuana per year.
In order to grow that quantity we are allowing a canopy of square feet. Cannabis Yields and Dosage is a required text book at Oaksterdam University due to its quick and concise look into the law, science, cultivation and current state of cannabis. I strongly recommend this read to everyone in the industry. Read Free For 30 Days. Chris Conrad - Cannabis Yields Dosage.
Description: conrad y su conocimiento que es reconocido por la mismisima corte suprema de estados unidos. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Federal medical marijuana Part I: The science Cannabis: Legally grown and provided in daily smoked dosages Marijuana Cannabis sativa is a treatment for pain and other symptoms of many diseases; its medical use goes back some 5, years.
Herbal cannabis and its derivatives are eaten, smoked or used as tinctures, topical salves and herbal packs, depending on the con- Partial list of health conditions for which medical marijuana is used Cannabis resin and its derivatives have long been used to treat symptoms of many health conditions or to synergize or control the side effects of other drugs, particularly in chemotherapy and pain management.
CB1 CB2 5. Causes dry mouth oral dehydration. Journal of the American Medical Association June 21, Glaucoma blockage occurs at the sites of eye's fluid drainage. Cannabis dries eyes, to lower IOP to a safe level. The blockage leads to fluid buildup and high IOP. Eating hempseed oil softens stools and facilitates defecation If cannabis is working, a patient may well appear healthy; in fact, one should hope they do feel better and not resent the fact that their symptoms are diminished. Physician, researcher, court-qualified cannabis expert The phrase medical marijuana, as commonly used, refers to the cured, mature female flowers of highpotency strains of cannabis or a conversion product.
Chronic pain patients tend to use larger amounts, while Table 2: Daily smoked dosages A single cigarette per day weighing less than one gram equates to roughly one ounce per month, or 12 ounces per year. California Court of Appeals, People v. Inhaled cannabis: smoked, vaporized, converted Bud: the dried, manicured mature female cannabis flower Sinsemilla: seedless cannabis bud Kef: keif, kif, kief : powdery resin glands trichome Hashish: compressed resin glands, concentrate Oil, wax, shatter: Liquefied, paste-like or rigid resin, respectively, extracted using water, CO2 or solvents Eaten: oral ingestion All the various forms listed above can be heated and eaten Butter: used for cooking or baking edibles Tinctures: ethyl alcohol liquor -based, by the dropper Food: Pastries, candies, sauce using any of the above Mari-pills: encapsulated cannabis in oil RSO,Phoenix tears or CBD-rich concentrated oil Marinol: Dronabinol, synthetic THC sold by prescription Only the dried mature processed flowers of female cannabis plant or the plant conversion shall be considered when determining allowable quantities of marijuana under this section.
Page 8 Cannabis Yields and Dosage Canopy is a term used in agriculture to describe the foliage of growing plants. A backyard garden often has plants Outdoors: Natural annual growing season Plants grow together through the season at different rates. Many small plants or a few big ones Some people can grow bushy plants outdoors while others need to grow Sea of Green gardens indoors with small plants. Indoors:Two distinct stages of growth About half of the area is used for flowering females and harvested three times per year, for a total of The other half is for mothers, seedlings, clones and young Understanding grow lamps: Only part of an indoor plants that are used to refill the flowering area as needed.
Doctors can approve cannabis The Ninth Circuit in affirmed a physicians First Amendment right to speak to a patient and recommend or approve cannabis without fear of arrest, as long as they do not prescribe it or help patients obtain it. Feds can prosecute state patients The Ninth Circuits Raich v. Divide that by 24 the number of servings , and you know each serving contains about To determine the amount of THC or CBD in each serving of whatever goodie you baked, and how many grams of cannabis to use when baking- checkout this helpful cannabutter dosing calculator.
Posted by Andrew Sharp. First, choose your weapon: Brain or calculator? Against popular belief that half an ounce of cannabis makes a cup of cannabutter, lipids in oils can only bind with so many cannabinoids. Anything extra is wasted. As in the example above, a ratio of butter to cannabis will do.
Cut stronger recipes with regular butter or oil, and add more THC to weaker ones with an oil or extract. Do stir your batter like your life depends on it. This will ensure the cannabutter is evenly distributed and the right dose makes it into each serving. If too fine, the cannabis in your butter will be difficult to strain and produces a strong, plant-like taste.
Best to grind it coarsely using a hand grinder. Think of the formula in reverse. Take a little oil with food or drink, wait an hour, and see how you feel. The amount of oil that yields the desired effect represents a single dose, which you can multiply per serving of your batch. Share this Post:.