Development of New Catalytic Performance of Nanoporous Metals for Organic Reactions
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This technique can be applied to the preparation of nanoporous less noble metals and non-metals such as Ti , Nb , Si , Fe , and Cr  as well as graphite , ferritic stainless steel Fe-Cr , and P-Ti Ti-Cr-Zr alloy , whose dealloying mechanism is described in detail elsewhere .
In particular, the nanoporous Si obtained by this method can be used for fabricating high-quality anodes with a high lithium capacity approaching its theoretical limit and significantly extended service lives, which are comparable with those of the electrodes manufactured from silicon nano-particles [,]. Moreover, NPG is an extraordinarily well-defined model system for studying the mechanical behavior of metal nanostructures, and its deformation mechanism as well as the ligament size effect on the yield strength have been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically .
The future outlook toward achieving the ultimate 3D functionality is summarized in Figure Similar to periodic tables, it is very interesting to note that the nanoporous microsphere dealloyed from gas-atomized powders can be considered a mere example of functional 'elements' among many other novel microstructures including living cells.
Various characteristic microstructures including those of superalloys, superconductors, shape memory alloys, and metallic glasses are widely known, and their powders with unique functionalities for 3D printers can be fabricated. The key issues here are the selection of a proper method for designing 3D objects with desired properties and the exact positioning of the required functional elements in the resulting 3D structure.
A possible solution to these problems can be obtained using recent advances in the field of information technology. Similar to 3D printing technology, the fields of superior artificial intelligence AI [,], neuromorphic devices [,], and data informatics represented by the 'big data' collected for various materials, cells, and DNA [,] are also progressing beyond our current level of knowledge.
It remains an open question: what and how can the ultimate AI learn from the Big Data design via Al-driven 3D printing? Similar to our human body containing hierarchical blood vessels, the AI may design a combination of hierarchical nanoporous metals for fluid channels, catalysts, electrolytes, cooperative cells, and self-heating ceramics to ultimately create an artificial life AL in the future: in other words, 'AI begets AL.
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Hierarchical nanoporosity enhanced reversible capacity of bicontinuous nanoporous metal based Li-O2 battery. Submit your article to this journal Bl View related articles C? Introduction Dealloying refers to selective leaching of one or more components out of a solid solution alloy or compound to produce a residual nanoporous structure . Interestingly, dealloying gold-copper alloy surfaces with natural acids which is also called depletion gilding was used in the ancient Incan Empire for coloring gems to shine gold .
Versatile applications 2. Molecular detection Surface-enhanced Raman scattering SERS is a surface-sensitive technique where Raman scattering is enhanced by the molecular adsorption on rough metallic nanostructures via electromagnetic and chemical enhancement mechanisms . The obtained results reveal that the strongest SERS enhancement was achieved for the sample with an ultrafine nanopore size of around 5 nm since the pores with smaller sizes produced larger signals.
To further enhance the observed SERS effect of 'hot spots', wrinkled NPG films were obtained by the thermal contraction of the underlying pre-strained polystyrene substrates see Figure 2. Owing to the potential applications of copper as an inexpensive raw material, nanoporous copper NPC was fabricated by dealloying Cu30Mn70 alloy .
Catalysis Gold is considered a chemically inert material because its standard electrode potential is the highest among the metals it is still possible to hear in the news that the ancient gold coins manufactured many centuries ago and recently found inside a sunken ship have retained their tantalizing gold color.
As indicated by the results of statistical analysis, the fraction of the under-coordinated surface atoms on NPG ligaments was much larger than that on the truncated octahedral gold particles with identical diameters. Gas conversion in automobiles relies on the use of precious metal catalysts and rare-earth oxide supports 5 b Reconstructed 3D atomic configuration of the NPG ligament. Different colors denote the surface atoms with different coordination numbers.
The resulting material was durable and catalytically active toward both NO reduction and CO oxidation. The monotonic nanopores do not exhibit sufficient heat resistance to suppress the pore degradation via coarsening; however, in this new design, despite the coarsening of the active metal regions to sizes exceeding nm, they can preserve their perimeter interfaces as long as they remain inside the stable nanoporous oxide network.
Recently, Ni3Nb has evolved into a Figure 5. Thus, uniform graphene films were grown across the nickel templates after heating in the CVD furnace filled with hydrogen, argon, and benzene gases. It can potentially be used in electrocatalysis Figure 6. Hierarchical pore formation Dealloyed nanoporous metals usually have unimodal pore sizes. Therefore, we have developed an innovative combination of the Figure During high-temperature sintering, both the template material and carbon-based binder are decomposed, while the remaining metal powder becomes consolidated to form a sheet.
Additive manufacturing via 3D printing The AM technique known as 3D printing has been developing very rapidly. Perspectives Following a long trail from ancient times to modern civilization, nanoporous metals have been established as a novel class of materials. However, many unexplored topics remain to be investigated. Similar to our human body containing hierarchical blood vessels, the AI may design a combination of hierarchical nanoporous metals for fluid channels, catalysts, electrolytes, cooperative cells, and self-heating ceramics to ultimately create an artificial life AL in the future: in other words, 'AI begets AL Acknowledgements The author acknowledges the assistance provided by the Advanced Characterization Nanotechnology Platform of the High-Voltage Electron Microscopy Laboratory at the Nagoya University.
Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Mechanism of corrosion tunneling with special reference to Cu3Au. Hakamada M, Mabuchi M. If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". In all cases the Ref. XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission to reproduce figures, diagrams etc.
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