The Challenge of Effective Speaking, 15th Edition
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Instead, ethical presenters provide an author reference on the slide in which the cited content is shown see Figure 3. Speakers should also carefully select and correctly cite images displayed in their visual aid. Images should be relevant to the keywords used on your PowerPoint slide. In other words, captions are not necessary because the image can stand alone; images you display should obviously correlate with your speech content a caption is typically used because the picture needs explanation.
In other words, the presence of a caption typically means your image does not directly correspond with the verbal speech material. Images should support, not distract, from the verbal or visual message. Hence, there is no need for blinking, rotating, or otherwise distracting visual aids.
All pictures should be cited, unless the presenter uses a personal, clipart, or purchased stock image. To cite an image, simply include the credit or web link to that picture; note, however, the font size of the link should be reduced so that it is visible to the audience without distracting from the content in your visual aid. Seeing an image link should not be distracting to audience members. The fair use provision allows for copyrighted information to be shared if it is used for educational benefits, news reporting, research, and in other situations.
Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. You can find more about these four factors at the U. Copyright website. Ethical citing includes crediting authors in the text of your written speech materials, acknowledging authors aloud during your speech, and citing images and sources on your visual aid.
However, ethics in public speaking encompass more than crediting source material.
Ensuring that you have responsible speech goals is one way to achieve ethical communication in public speaking. There are several speech goals that support this mission. This section will focus on five goals: 1 promote diversity, 2 use inclusive language, 3 avoid hate speech, 4 raise social awareness, and 5 employ respectful free speech.
The Challenge of Effective Speaking
Keith Brown. Public domain. Diversity in public speaking is important when considering both your audience and your speech content. Promoting diversity allows audience members who may be different from the speaker to feel included and can present a perspective to which audience members had not previously been exposed.
Speakers may choose a speech topic that introduces a multicultural issue to the audience or can promote diversity by choosing language and visual aids that relate to and support listeners of different backgrounds. Because of the diversity present in our lives, it is necessary to consider how speakers can promote diversity. One simple way of promoting diversity is to use both sexes in your hypothetical examples and to include co-cultural groups when creating a hypothetical situation.
For example, you can use names that represent both sexes and that also stem from different cultural backgrounds. In the story about Carley and her co-workers, her co-workers were deliberately given male names so that both sexes were represented. Ethical speakers also encourage diversity in races, socioeconomic status, and other demographics. These choices promote diversity. In addition, ethical speakers can strive to break stereotypes. Or make the hypothetical secretary a man named Frank?
You could also include a picture in your visual aid of the female surgeon or the male secretary at work. Ethical speakers should not assume that a nurse is female or that a firefighter is male. Sexist language can alienate your audience from your discussion. Another way that sexist language occurs in speeches is when certain statements or ideas are directed at a particular sex. Am I right, guys?
Avoiding sexist language is one way to use inclusive language. Another important way for speakers to develop responsible language is to use inclusionary pronouns and phrases.
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Take, for example, the following listener relevance statements in a persuasive speech about volunteering:. This promotes a feeling of inclusiveness, one of the responsible speech goals. Another key aspect of ethical speaking is to develop an awareness of spoken words and the power of words. It is essential that public speakers refrain from hate or sexist language.
The Challenge of Effective Speaking
Michael Richards, famous for the role of Cosmo Kramer on Seinfeld , came under fire for his hate speech during a comedy routine in Richards used several racial epithets and directed his hate language towards African-Americans and Mexicans. Likewise, using hate speech in any public speaking situation can alienate your audience and take away your credibility, leading to more serious implications for your grade, your job, or other serious outcomes. It is your responsibility as the speaker to be aware of sensitive material and be able to navigate language choices to avoid offending your audience.
Speakers should consider it their ethical responsibility to educate listeners by introducing ideas of racial, gender, or cultural diversity, but also by raising social awareness , or the recognition of important issues that affect societies. Raising social awareness is a task for ethical speakers because educating peers on important causes empowers others to make a positive change in the world. Many times when you present a speech, you have the opportunity to raise awareness about growing social issues.
Of course, those are just a few ideas for how an informative or persuasive speech can be used to raise awareness about current social issues. It is your responsibility, as a person and speaker, to share information that provides knowledge or activates your audience toward the common good.
Moon identifies a principle that allows the speaker to justify his or her perspective by finding common moral ground with the audience. For example, even though you are a vegetarian and believe that killing animals for food is murder, you know that the majority of your audience does not feel the same way. We live in a nation that values freedom of speech. Of course, due to the First Amendment, you have the right and ability to voice your opinions and values to an audience.
However, that freedom of speech must be balanced with your responsibility as a speaker to respect your audience. Offending or degrading the values of your audience members will not inform or persuade them. Instead, these pictures may send audience members into an emotional tailspin making it difficult for them to hear your persuasive points because of their own psychological noise.
Freedom of speech is a beautiful American value, but ethical speakers must learn to balance their speech freedom with their obligation to respect each audience member. Skip to main content. Module Seven: Ethics in Public Speaking. Search for:. ABC News. Albanese accused of plagiarising Hollywood speech. Texas Library Journal , 80 4 , — The art of public speaking 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Textual appropriation and citing behaviors of university undergraduates.
Applied Linguistics, 31 1 , 1— Plagiarism: Writing Responsibly. Business Communication Quarterly , 43 , 34— Avoiding plagiarism. The Sun. Falling upward: A spirituality for the two halves of life. Are you at high risk for serious illness from flu?
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PowerPoint writing guide. What is fair use? Copyright and fair use, Stanford University Libraries. Copyright Crash Course. Stereotypes and biased language.
The Challenge of Effective Speaking 15th
NCA credo for ethical communication. The challenge of effective speaking 15th ed. The Washington Post.
Ryan Ed. The Verderbers, together with new coauthor Deanna D. Sellnow, have enhanced this nationwide best seller in many ways. The authors give your students an exceptional foundation for creating and delivering their speeches, including the latest research, numerous in-text activities, more techniques to help them address anxiety and ethical issues that speakers face, new critical-thinking and reflection prompts that help students think logically about the speech-making process, and much more.
Toon meer Toon minder. Recensie s 1. Introduction to Public Speaking. Effective Listening. Adapting to Audience. Researching Information for Your Speech. Organizing and Outlining the Speech. Completing the Outline: Creating the Introduction and the Conclusion. Creating and Using Visual Aids.
Practicing Speech Wording. Practicing Delivery. Informative Speaking. Persuasive Speaking: Reasoning with Your Audience. Persuasive Speaking: Motivating the Audience. Ceremonial Speaking: Speeches for Special Occasions.