Shadow Force: Private Security Contractors in Iraq (Praeger Security International)

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Portfolio, Founder Eeben Barlow in the early s originally offered courses in intelligence to South Africa's Special Forces and security work to De Beers' diamond mining industry. This was greatly expanded in when an oil company offered EO a contract to provide security for its staff while they recovered valuable drilling equipment stranded at the Angolan oil port of Soyo - after its capture by UNITA rebels.

Private Military Security Companies Reading List

Executive Outcomes: Against All Odds. Galago, It also illustrates the importance of nonpartisanship and the mission and role of the armed forces. Officers, NCOs and their subordinates need to, furthermore, understand their role in defending and protecting the government and the people they serve. Barlow, Eeben. He had been in the country for only two weeks. This was a taste of what was to come over the next few years as he worked as a private military contractor PMC in Iraq.

Not to wage war but to protect lives. Raath and his team provided security for engineers working on reconstruction projects in Iraq. Whether in the notorious Triangle of Death, in the deadly area around Ramadi or in the faction-ridden Basra, Raath had numerous hair-raising experiences.

Key to his survival was his training as a Special Forces operator, or Recce. Prime Minister Moise Tshombe called in white mercenary soldiers to support the Congolese National Army in suppressing the armed soldiers, or "Simbas". The author commanded a unit of these mercenaries.

In This Article

Today's armed forces are a third smaller than they were during the Cold War, and yet are expected to do as much if not more than they did during those years. As a result, a transformation is occurring in the way the U. The authors are drawn from a range of policy, legislative, military, legal, and academic backgrounds. They lay out the philosophical arguments supporting the use of contractors in combat and stabilization operations and present a spectrum of arguments that support and criticize emergent private sector roles.

The book provides fresh policy guidance to those who will research, direct, and carry out future deployments. Stanford Security Studies, Routledge, Corporate Warriors includes a description of how the business works, as well as portraits of each of the basic types of companies: military providers that offer troops for tactical operations; military consultants that supply expert advice and training; and military support companies that sell logistics, intelligence, and engineering. Cornell University Press, As they assume more responsibilities in conflict and post-conflict settings, their growing significance raises fundamental questions about their nature, their role in different regions and contexts, and their regulation.

It analyzes the current legal framework and the needs and possibilities for regulation in the years ahead. The book as a whole is organized around four sets of questions, which are reflected in the four parts of the book. First, why and how is regulation of PMCs now a challenging issue? Secondly, how have problems leading to a call for regulation manifested in different regions and contexts?


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Third, what regulatory norms and institutions currently exist and how effective are they? And, fourth, what role has the market to play in regulation? Oxford University Press, But it also looks back to the middle ages and the fourteenth century, and forward to the Italian wars of the sixteenth century when foreign armies disputed the European balance of power on Italian soil.

Mercenaries and their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy. Pen and Sword, By developing and applying competing constructivist and neorealist theories of military performance to four asymmetric wars in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, he demonstrates how mercenary groups that strongly emphasize behavioral norms encouraging their personnel to think creatively, make decisions on their own, take personal initiative, communicate accurate information within the group, enhance their technical proficiency and develop a sense of loyalty to their fellow fighters will exhibit vastly superior tactical capabilities to other mercenary groups.

Shadow Force: Private Security Contractors in Iraq

Fitzsimmons demonstrates that although the victorious mercenary groups occasionally had access to weapon systems unavailable to their opponents, the balance of material capabilities fielded by the opposing military forces had far less influence on the outcome of these asymmetric conflicts than the culturally determined tactical behavior exhibited by their personnel. Mercenaries in Asymmetric Conflicts. Cambridge University Press, By far the most famous were Xenophon's 'Ten Thousand', who had to cut their way out of the Persian Empire after the death of their employer and such Greek infantry were for long the most dominant type even a Spartan king hiring himself out in one case , but there was a wide variety of mercenaries available.

Some, such as Celts and Thracians were hired largely for their love of fighting, while others were valued for their specialist skills, such as Cretan archers or slingers from Rhodes or the Balearic Islands. This will be the first full-length book on the subject since It will examine the role of the mercenaries and their influence on the wars of the period down to the death of Alexander the Great, who employed them and why, and will also look at the social and economic pressures that drove tens of thousands to make a living of fighting for the highest bidder, despite the intense dangers of the ancient battlefield.

Frontline Books, The contemporary organization of global violence is neither timeless nor natural, argues Janice Thomson. It is distinctively modern. In this book, she examines how the present arrangement of the world into violence-monopolizing sovereign states evolved over the six preceding centuries. Thomson, Janice E. Princeton University Press, From brushfire wars in the Congo to outright genocides in Biafra, highly skilled mercenaries were called upon to fight for order, and also for a living.

Whether facing fanatics in Somalia or revolutionaries in Rhodesia, staving off cannibals in Sierra Leone or assisting a civil war in Angola the mercs put their lives on the line for a cause.


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Casemate, First, the book argues that moral disapproval of mercenaries led to the disappearance of independent mercenaries from medieval Europe. Second, the transition from armies composed of mercenaries to citizen armies in the nineteenth century can only be understood with attention to the norm against mercenaries. Third, it is impossible to understand why international law regarding mercenaries, created in the s and s, is so ineffective without understanding the norm. Finally, the disappearance of companies like Executive Outcomes and Sandline and the development of today's private security industry cannot be understood without the norm.

The approach is applied to the United States using official documents and interviews with policy-makers. In addition to analyzing the impact of defense reform initiatives over the past thirty years, the book includes the recent phenomenon of "contracting-out" security that has resulted in greater numbers of contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan than uniformed military personnel.

Bruneau, Thomas. Patriots for Profit: Contractors and the Military in U. National Security. As a result, their influence has increased. David Shearer argues that the debate over the use of these companies — notably the South African firm Executive Outcomes EO — has not, however, kept pace with their development. Companies such as EO are widely seen as merely modern-day mercenary outfits exploiting violence for private gain. Private Armies and Military Intervention. This alternative 'army' was not only to become the largest assemblage of contractors in living memory to accompany a military force into a war zone, but was also responsible for a fundamental transformation of how military logistics were delivered.

Kinsey, Christopher. However, reoccurring incidents of human rights violations have led the international community, private sector and civil society to acknowledge the need for more control. This book examines the promises and dangers of emerging non-binding PMSC regulation alongside more traditional forms of law-making such as plans for an international convention on the use of PMSCs. Intersentia, It takes an innovative approach, bringing theory and empirical research into mutually illuminating contact. Includes contributions from experts in IR, political theory, international and corporate law, and economics, and also breaks important new ground by including philosophical discussions of PMSCs.

Despite sharing several important characteristics, such as working for the same client the US State Department during the same time period, the employees of Blackwater fired their weapons far more often, and killed and seriously injured far more people in Iraq than their counterparts in DynCorp. In order to explain this disparity, the book undertakes the most comprehensive analysis ever attempted on the use of violence by the employees of these firms. Fitzsimmons, Scott. It situates cases concerning ABL, the biggest Czech private security company, in the larger social, political, legal and economic contexts of the booming private security business.

This company's extensive linkages with Czech politics suggest that the continued absence of specific legislation for the regulation of private security companies' activities is due to too much, rather than too little, political interest in their activities. This is problematic, arguably, because the practices of private security companies have already contributed to a significant transformation of the Czech security field by enhancing the commodification and depoliticization of security, while ABL's use of security methods for political purposes and a business approach to politics have profoundly transformed the field of politics.

Reflecting the growing interest in the privatization of security, this timely study unpacks the relationship between politics, business and security in the Czech Republic. Palgrave Macmillian, Christian Miller. Miller is one of the few reporters in the country, and possibly the best, chronicling the many different ways in which private contractors are often treated like disposable trash, used for the job and then thrown away.

For example, his past writings on flaws in the Defense Base Act, the federal law requiring companies to provide insurance for those working overseas in war zones, caused Congress to hold a June 18, hearing of the Domestic Policy Subcommittee of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on the subject. His latest article, " The Other Victims of Battlefield Stress; Defense Contractors' Mental Health Neglected ," details the little attention that has been paid to the mental health of tens of thousands of civilian contractors returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

Unlike the mental health of regular military personnel, an issue which has received considerable attention in the past few years, no agency tracks how many civilian workers have killed themselves after returning from the war zones. She protested, sending her claim into a dispute resolution system run by the Labor Department. Her case is still grinding its way through the system, which can take years to produce a final result.

Experts hired by the family and the insurance company differed on what led to Wade Dill's suicide. It is also an example of irony, or perhaps chutzpah, that DBA insurance firms dispute these claims, as workers' compensation insurance is a hidden cost for U. The government reimburses contractors for the insurance premiums and also reimburses the insurance company for any combat-related claims.

There have been enough incidents over the past 6 years to note that the mental health of private military contractors is a significant issue. Even the most cursory online search would bring up the following incidents. Assessments by consultant psychiatrists in May and June reported that the symptoms had worsened.

Private Military

Despite this, he was hired in August by ArmorGroup and sent out to Iraq without undergoing a full medical assessment. Within 36 hours of his arrival, the incident took place in which two colleagues died and an Iraqi was injured. On November 19, the San Francisco Chronicle ran an article that noted contractors are not eligible for the network of support that the Pentagon has designed to assist U.

A July 4 New York Times article detailed how thousands of contractors who worked in Iraq are returning home with the same kinds of combat-related mental health problems that afflict American military personnel. Bear in mind that in terms of medical coverage, long before they fall under Veteran's Administration care or DoD-subsidized health insurance, every U.

They are also eligible for the Federal Long Term Care Insurance Program, which offers portable, guaranteed renewable, federally sponsored coverage. As private military contractors generally don't provide anything remotely like this perhaps that is one reason they can argue that they are more cost-effective, if not ethically-effective towards their own workers, than their public sector counterparts. Reached by phone earlier today Miller said that since there is no system in place that works at all, mental health treatment of PMC workers has to be looked at on a company by company basis.

Miller noted that a few companies have gone above and beyond in dealing with the issue. He points to Dyncorp, which in created its own care program through its own health insurance plan to better monitor employees for PTSD. The program has psychologists examine returning contractors immediately after they arrive in the United States and six months later. It also has psychologists available via a hour hotline, provides help filing insurance claims and has created an alumni association for its contractors.

Also last month DynCorp announce the establishment of an Employee Assistance Program , to assist employees in the event of serious or mortal injury. Another is the CivPol Alumni Association, which promotes the accomplishments of American police officers serving in post-conflict environments throughout the world. It has a blog devoted to the issue of psychological support among contractors.

And Xe Services formerly known as Blackwater also, according to Miller, has a fairly developed program.