The Moroccan Goums: Tribal Warriors in a Modern War (Contributions in Military Studies)

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No doubt, the assault group was nervous, or perhaps they just misunderstood the plan, but before Vialis had time to light his cigarette, the group rose up from their cover and charged screaming across the 50 meters of open ground. The Moroccans managed to drop the sergeant and one other before the charge closed home but the French finished off all the regaining Moroccan defenders with their bayonets without further loss.

The final toll was Moroccan dead.

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French counted 9 dead and 21 wounded most from within the casbah. Among the dead, in the courtyard was Captain Quisard.

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In his diary was found the complaint that after a 10 years in Africa, he had still not fired a shot in anger. C'est la vie. Return to Index.

It was August of and the southern oases were again under siege and the fort at Taghit was assaulted by a band of Moroccans. A large relief column was en route with pack camels of supplies. Due to the large size of the relief column it had to be split into detachments as the water holes on the route were insufficient to supply such a large number of animals, and time had to be given for the wells to fill again before the next detachment arrived.

One detachment of camels was commanded by Captain Vauchez and his half mounted company of the 2 nd Regiment Legion Etrangere comprising of 2 officers and other ranks with a mounted detachment of 30 Spahis. Overview of the major tribes in the late 19 th century immediately prior to the French invasion.

Ait Izdig By the late 19 th century, this Berber tribe was becoming sedentary and although some elements of it continued to live in tents many had taken to the cultivation of dates and olives. They controlled the caravan routs from the Tafilalt to Fez. Ait Seghrushin This was a Berber pastoral tribe of 12, centered on Talsint.

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It contained pastoral and agricultural groups. Bani Gil On of the major Arab tribes, 18, people occupying the great Moroccan plains of the Tamlelt. They existed on a mixture of agriculture and pastoralism.

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Their main dependency was on sheep herding. Some of the tribe owned palm groves in the oases around Figuig. They were all tent dwelling nomads with a comparatively sophisticated military structure.

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They relied on sheep camel and goat herding. Their territory stretched across the Hammada de Guir to the lower Guir valley and the Zousfana. Many also owned date groves in the Tafilalt. Their territory in the south took them to the French frontier and they were heavily involved in raids against the invasion. Any spoils of battle were divided amongst the fifths proportionately to the number of warriors in each fifth that had taken part. The tribal war party as a whole were under the command of an ad hoc Warlord called a Sheik who was elected by the fifths for the duration of the battle or war.

The Sheik had absolute military authority for the duration of his election. Moroccan Berbers with Remington rolling block rifles. Sherifs were those who were accepted as descendents of The Prophet. They were usually addressed as Mulay and widely scattered throughout Morocco. They were politically influential men with a high social standing enjoying the privileges and immunities the position brought them. Marabouts were descendents of saints, holy personages responsible for maintaining the tombs. Often they established Koranic schools, places of arbitration, sanctuaries, religious brotherhoods and pilgrimage destinations.

These special establishments were generically known as zawiya, the head of which was a sheik, often a living saint in his own right. Marabouts were addresses as Si, or Sidi. Marabouts and sherifs were not mutually exclusive and provided he qualified, a man could hold both positions. The characteristic that separated these two categories from the rest of the inhabitants was the possession of "Baraka" or presence of divine grace. The most appropriate western concept of this division socially would be to aristocracy.

Members of these two groups were usually required to marry within their lineage to prevent the loss of the holy descent lineage. Ahrar were the largest groups in the Kasars. They were the land-owning farmers in and around the oases. They were not tribal with a few exceptions but did hold strong family lineages.

They considered themselves to be more white than the lower class haratin, but whiteness was more defined by family lineage than by skin color. Haratin were mostly dark skinned of Negroid ancestry. Descended either from the original Neolithic inhabitants of the region before the Moors or Arabs came or from inter-breeding with West Africans. They were not slaves. They were the "working class", the serfs of the "landed gentry" Ahrar. They worked usually for a fifth or some portion of the crop yield. They rarely owned any land and lived in the same quarter within the Kasar.

They did not trace their family lineage beyond two or three generations. The haratin were a major portion of the sedentary populations, as big as or larger than the Ahrar. Slave ownership was diapering rapidly at the end of the nineteenth century due to the dwindling West African slave trade.

The majority of what slaves there were in the region belong to the semi nomadic tribes already described. Jews occupied their own quarter within the Kasars, called the mallah. They did not operate within the Muslim system but neither were they persecuted by them. They did require the protection of a Muslim patron who represented them in dealings with the Muslim community.

They were specialists in commerce, metal smithing including gun smithing and leather working and shoe making. Figuig, which consisted of five kasars was surveyed again in and in just one of the kasars examined counted Remingtons, 35 Martini Henry's, 18 Chassepots, 47 Lebels and 75 other repeating models of various manufactures.

Also found in the region were Mausers, Spensers, Lefaucheux and Kropatschek rifles. The Kropatschek was a temporary diversion in French firearm development and was used almost exclusively by the French Marines in Africa. It was a tubular magazine repeater that was very similar in feed mechanism to the Lebel but it used the larger caliber black powder round. It was in fairly limited used by but was soon to be replaced by the Lebel.

In conclusion the firearms trade in the late nineteenth century was sufficient to supply any warrior with a breech loading rifle and some with repeating rifles. The predominant weapon was the rolling block Remington Rifle. Large numbers of pistols and revolvers were also in large circulation. A French study in stated that the nomadic tribes of the Tafilalt region were well armed with modern weapons but that flintlock muskets were still to be found in the kasars.

When the opposition to the French invasion was at its height between and the arms trade flourished throughout Morocco. The raiding of the French controlled zones produced more and more rifles for the tribes, as did the transferring of Makhzan garrison troops in Tafilalt and Figuig. Despite the ubiquitous breech loading rifles, the technology gap between the Moroccan tribes and the French invaders was never narrowed.

They still had relatively few repeaters and apart from the odd captured trophy, no machine guns and portable artillery pieces. These were to prove to be the decisive battle winner for every major conflict of the French invasion. Compagnies Sahariennes, 3 companies. Various ad hoc Irregular levies Goums raised throughout the region. Morocco was formally invaded in Prior to it did not have a formal garrison establishment but was staffed from units detached from XIX Corps. After the Tirailleurs in Algeria and Tunisia were rapidly expanded to 9 regiments.

They will not be examined in this article, as they were not used on the Algero Moroccan border. Tirailleurs Senegalais were later sent to reinforce Algeria when the Tirailleur Algeriens were bled off to support the occupation of Morocco. Zouaves saw considerable action in the initial conquering of Algeria where they served with distinction earning the reputation of an elite unit. Organization Each Zouave regiment contained 4 battalions in North Africa, with a 5 th battalion in France serving with the Metropolitan Army along with another battalion of reservists, designated as the 11 th battalion.

The draft term was eventually lowered to 1 year and attracted Italian and Spanish residents of Algeria and Tunisia who from were granted French Citizenship after service. These were divided into 4 companies of two platoons. Each platoon was further divided into two sections.

Zouave uniforms were Arabic in design. Chechia, a red shapeless fez. This was wrapped in a white turban that was often not worn in the field. Jacket Short dark-blue waist length jacket and vest. Lined white. Red piping on the collar and down the front. False pocket with looped shaped braiding colored to designate the regiment. Pants Dress issue was bright red baggy pantaloon style pants with blue braided piping down the outside leg.

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