The Cuban Counterrevolution

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Embargo against Cuba — the longest-lasting single foreign policy in American history [96] — is still in force as of , although it has undergone a partial loosening in recent years, only to be recently strengthened in Castro's victory and post-revolutionary foreign policy had global repercussions. In line with his call for revolution in Latin America and beyond against imperial powers, laid out in his Declarations of Havana, Castro immediately sought to "export" his revolution to other countries in the Caribbean and beyond, sending weapons to Algerian rebels as early as Following the American embargo, the Soviet Union became Cuba's main ally.

Cuba maintained close links to the Soviets until the Soviet Union's collapse in The end of Soviet economic aid and the loss of its trade partners in the Eastern Bloc led to an economic crisis and period of shortages known as the Special Period in Cuba.


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Revolution in Cuba between and For other uses, see Cuban Revolution disambiguation. Cuban Revolution. Part of a series on the. Marxist—Leninist state Aggravation of class struggle under socialism Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Command economy Collectivization Commanding heights of the economy Cult of personality Democratic centralism Dialectical logic Dialectical materialism Foco Labour aristocracy Marxist—Leninist atheism National liberation One-party state Partiinost' People's democracy Popular front Proletarian internationalism Self-criticism Social fascism Socialist patriotism Soviet Yugoslav Socialist state Theory of the productive forces Third Period Vanguardism.

Theoretical works. By country. Related topics.

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Leninism Bolshevism Trotskyism. See also. Main article: Moncada Barracks. Main article: Granma yacht. Main article: Havana Presidential Palace attack Main article: Operation Verano. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: La Coubre explosion. Main articles: Escambray rebellion and Bay of Pigs Invasion. See also: Cuban exiles. Main article: Foreign relations of Cuba. President John F.

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Kennedy , interview with Jean Daniel , 24 October [92]. The greatest threat presented by Castro's Cuba is as an example to other Latin American states which are beset by poverty, corruption, feudalism, and plutocratic exploitation This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

September Cuba portal. Congressional Quarterly. The Wages of War, — Inter-University Consortium for Political Research. World Military and Social Expenditures, —88 12th edition. World Priorities. Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 26 January Newsmax Media. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 14 August Jason Beaubien.

Retrieved 9 July Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 16 July New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 October Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 18 April BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 27 August Twin Circle Publishing Co.


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New York: Longman. History Today. Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 29 May The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 29 June Sweig Inside the Cuban Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. Archived from the original on 14 October Archived from the original on 14 May Corruption in Cuba: Castro and beyond. University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 27 June Kennedy said: "I approved the proclamation which Fidel Castro made in the Sierra Maestra , when he justifiably called for justice and especially yearned to rid Cuba of corruption.

I will even go further: to some extent it is as though Batista was the incarnation of a number of sins on the part of the United States. Historical Dictionary of the s. Greenwood Publishing Group. Archived from the original on 24 April Fidel: A Biography of Fidel Castro. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 10 July The World Transformed: to the present.

The World Transformed to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. Contacto Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 January Florence Morning News. Retrieved 25 January Victoria Advocate. Retrieved 5 May That event caught the young Bretos on a Sunday outing to mass at the cathedral with his Aunt Nena.

He remembers the scene vividly: the staccato gun fire, the military fighter that roared by, the news that all the rebels had been killed, the photographs of the colonel in charge who smiled proudly over the corpses and of a prisoner being shot in cold blood, the latter image published in the Spanish edition of Life. Latin American History. Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 24 December The yacht, designed for only 12 passengers and supposedly with a maximum capacity of 25, also had to carry fuel for a week as well as food and weapons for the soldiers.

La Ventana. Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 18 August Washington Post. Cuba and the United States. Cigar Aficionado. May Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 28 August Marines at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Archived from the original on 25 October Radio Rebelde. Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 11 March Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 November In other words, the reactionaries overreached themselves.

With the growth of protests on the streets, Carmona's civilian and labour support evaporated, and the FAN also split into at least three distinct groups now struggling for power inside the military. Realising that the situation was escaping from his hands, Vasquez Velasco - in a nationally televised address - conditioned his continued support for Carmona to the immediate reinstatement of the National Assembly. Carmona immediately complied. The rebellion collapsed like a house of cards. And the army was split wide open. General Baduel declared himself in rebellion against the Carmona government even before it was sworn in April Having command of 2, elite paratroopers and a large arsenal of weapons and munitions, this was no small threat!

Division Gen. Julio Garcia Montoya, permanent secretary of the National Security and Defence Council, also declared himself in rebellion and made his opposition to the interim government known through a telephone interview with Cuban television that was then broadcast back to Venezuela. Stratfor continues: "One group is led by Army commander Gen. Efrain Vasquez Velasco, who emerged April as the leader of a center-right faction of career officers who oppose Chavez's attempts to politicize the FAN and shift the country away from capitalist democracy.

Vasquez Velasco's group negotiated the agreement with civic and political opposition leaders that installed Carmona as a consensus interim president. Some of these officers are longtime proteges of Rojas, and others - including some Opus Dei members - hail from the Christian Democrat Copei party, which long has been dominated by former President Rafael Caldera who also is Rojas's father-in-law.

This is Chavez's former unit, and Baduel is one of his closest friends and political allies in the army, sources say. Alexis de Toqueville pointed out long ago that revolution begins on the top. The latest reports show clearly that the ruling class in Venezuela is split. And this split extends to the tops of the state and the armed forces. This, as Lenin explained, is the first condition for a revolution. The failed attempt at counter-revolution will have exacerbated these contradictions and splits in the ruling class, and created the most favourable conditions for a complete social overturn.

The reactionaries have been forced onto the defensive, and for a time will be paralysed and unable to act. A courageous word from the top would be sufficient to deprive the reaction of its social base and permit even a peaceful transfer of power to the working people. There are moments in history that ere decisive. It is a question of "either…or". The counter-revolution has thrown down the gauntlet. Their first attempt has failed. But it will not be the last! Marx pointed out that the revolution needs the whip of counter-revolution.

The present situation is reminiscent of the tancazo in Chile - the abortive first attempt to overthrow the Allende government - which was defeated by the movement of the masses. There is no doubt whatsoever that if Salvador Allende had taken advantage of that moment to appeal to the masses to act, the revolution would have easily succeeded. But when the opportunity was thrown away, the counter-revolutionaries in the armed forces let us recall that Pinochet was supposed to be a loyal "democrat" regrouped and prepared a bloody coup a few months later.

This is a very serious warning to the workers of Venezuela! After the events of April , the situation is completely unstable. Nothing has been resolved. The situation resembles in many respects that which existed in Cuba in It is not generally realised that when Castro first came to power, he did not intend to nationalise the means of production. His programme was a programme of democratic reforms that did not go beyond the limits of the capitalist system. In fact, his publicly declared model was…the USA. However, on a capitalist basis there is no way forward for countries like Cuba and Venezuela.

Castro's attempt to carry through reforms to improve the conditions of the Cuban people immediately brought him into conflict with US imperialism and the big US monopolies that controlled the Cuban economies. In order to defend the gains of the revolution, Castro was compelled to nationalise the property of US imperialism and eliminate capitalism in Cuba. Although the Cuban revolution did not follow the classical model of the October revolution, and the workers never held power through the rule of democratically-elected soviets, nevertheless Castro had the support of the masses and the expropriation of landlordism and capitalism in Cuba represented a blow to imperialism and a big step forward.

The US imperialists burned their fingers badly in Cuba. Their attempt to destroy the revolution by relying on counter-revolutionary forces armed and financed by the CIA ended in a humiliating defeat at the Bay of Pigs. However, the drama is not yet played out. Venezuela is still in deep economic crisis, the gulf between the classes is profound. There is a growing polarisation between left and right. The immediate crisis has resulted in a setback for the counter-revolution.

However, the conflict is far from over. He will be under the remorseless pressure of US imperialism. The bourgeoisie, with the active support and encouragement of the CIA, will intensify its campaign of sabotage and disruption. If he does not do what the capitalists and imperialists demand, he can be deposed by the National Assembly itself. His intentions are good. But in politics as in life, intentions are never enough. That can be fatal in a situation where the balance of forces is so unstable.


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  6. The establishment of action committees in every factory, oil refinery, and army barracks is the only way to defend the revolution and disarm the counter-revolutionary forces. The working class must be armed to defend itself against the danger of another coup. Only decisive action can prevent a new crisis in which the counter-revolution will assume an even more violent and murderous character.

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    The position of the army is a crucial factor. The reactionaries in the barracks have suffered a serious set-back. But they will already be regrouping, with the active assistance of the US embassy. The next 24 to 48 hours could be decisive.

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    If the working class acts with sufficient energy, the rank and file of the army can quickly be won over to the side of the revolution. The best of the officers will follow them, isolating the reactionary elements in the general staff. The revolution can still succeed with minimum violence and loss of life. But if the revolution hesitates, it is lost. The way will be prepared for terrible bloodshed, ending in a brutal military dictatorship later on.

    Above all, it is necessary to smash the resistance of the bosses and their cronies. This was announced on Dec. Both announced that for the first time in more than 50 years, U. This means the re-establishment of diplomatic relations. To give you a sense of what it means for the Cuban people, I have here an excerpt of what that day was like, from Michael Krinsky, a progressive New York attorney who has represented the Cuban Government in the U.

    Unbelievable joy. Then when Raul announced that both governments agreed to establish normal relations, there was stunned silence. Then tremendous commotion and applause. There is a sense of triumph, for the person on the street, that after 55 years of holding on, despite the Bay of Pigs invasion, economic blockade, the special period when trade with the Soviet Union ended, they had held on.

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    The feeling was, the U. It was a tremendous sense of vindication and triumph, you could see it in the streets, in the restaurants, they would congratulate each other, it was quite a moment. It is a very important development for the Cuban people and the Revolution, who have been besieged for more than 55 years by U.

    And we must have no illusions about U. What did Obama say in those 15 minutes? I will take a couple of minutes to mention some of what he said. Please listen carefully to what he says. They are loaded words, and it is critical for us as revolutionaries, especially in the United States, to know the real meaning, to read between the lines. Obama admitted that the blockade policy made the United States isolated. And now, it is clear that the U. The U. Why is he talking about unions in Cuba? But that is not what Obama really wants in Cuba. As I said earlier, one of the biggest motivations for the U.

    Every country in the western hemisphere, from North and South America and the Caribbean participates, except for Cuba. That is because the OAS, which is dominated by U. It has been denied membership ever since. The announcement of diplomatic relations was met with positive reaction in many Latin American countries.

    But we will insist that civil society join us so that citizens, not just leaders, are shaping our future.